contribution of physics in medical science

Together with his colleagues, he has shown that gold nanoparticles can enhance the efficacy of low-energy X-rays in irradiated cells [90]. Role of Physics in Medicine This is a good article that reviews Lancet's special issue on Physics and Medicine. The trace elements Mg, K, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn and Cu were identified with different concentrations in the liver tissues under study. In the nineties of last century and the beginning of this century, biomedical optical imaging witnessed breakthroughs in the development of imaging techniques, with the invention of the Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) and the Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). A wide range of particles or molecules is currentlyused for medical imaging. Moreover, their electrochemical properties are the important assets for the biosensor technology. Graphene is just a one atom thick-two dimensional sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb like lattice. Nanoparticles are controlled and attracted to diseased cells, which leads to a direct attack and treatment of those cells. The use of nanotechnology in medical sciences and applications, known as nanomedicine, is a rapidly expanding field. Physics is the branch of science which deals with matter and its relation to energy. Demands for simultaneous detection of more targets in single assay,drives the development of inorganic nanocrystal-based fluorescent probes to replace organic fluorophores. Powsner RA, Powsner ER (1998) Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in Essential Nuclear Medicine Physics. The main ones are diagnostic radiology, or medical imaging, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology. AuroShell is currently being tested in a phase I clinical trial for head and neck cancers. Afterwards, another group further showed that nano-graphene was significantly better than carbon nanotubes in inducing photothermal death of U251 human glioma cells in vitro [133]. When the Nova beam strikes the selenium foils, it vaporizes them completely to createplasma of neon- like selenium ions. Their short wavelength, coherence and extreme brightness should allow for the exploration of living organisms and structures much smaller than one can see with optical methods. Medical Physicsis the branch of Natural Sciences that deals with the application of physics in medicine. To understand how a disease affects the organism, it is necessary to unde… Heavy elements in the body such as calciumare much better absorbers of X-rays than light elements such as carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen [19]. In bioimaging, functionalized and surfactant dispersed graphene solutions have been designed as blood pool MRI contrast agents [151]. The stimulated emission that was reported in these ions, indicate that some of the transitions are promising and could lead to progress towards the development of soft X-ray laser devices. The recent developments in lasers and nanotechnology have revolutionized both the research in biomedical science and the methods for medical diagnostics and treatments. OCT allows the reconstruction of the images from the upper skin layers, in a similar way as ultrasound does, but with much higher spatial resolution. It was applied in (LLNM) for the diagnosis and classification of liver cancer. kidney and gall bladder stones). Cui and Lieber have reported the performance of biosensors based on silicon nanowires doped with boron and used them for the detection of biological and chemical species [101]. Moreover, the various nanomaterials that it will provide, may be used to further develop tissue engineering and cell repair and for the purpose of generating devices as nanorobots, nanochips, nanoimplants and prostheses [169-171]. This was the first success of using graphene for in vivo cancer therapy. XXX. All it takes is looking at the sides to see how life has changed in a matter of a few years and to discover amazing … Secondly, it is equipped with a computer that integrates the multiple images to produce cross-sectional views of the organ: liver, thyroid, brain, heart, kidney and other body organs. Molecular asymmetry In studying crystals of sodium ammonium tartrate, Pasteur found that although they had the same chemical composition, they did not necessarily have the same structure. The system was controlled by Kestrel-Spec software to acquire images from the supported camera. The breakthrough that led to the practical realization of nanotechnology came in the 1980’s. Similarly, nanobiosensors are called nanotube-based sensors if they involve carbon nanotubes as enhancers of the reaction specificity and efficiency while biosensors using nanowires as charge transport and carriers are termed as nanowire biosensors. The nanoparticles protect the vaccine, allowing it more time to trigger a stronger immune response. For some (CT) exams, an intravenous contrast injection is required to enhance visibility in the area of the body being examined. This multi-detector row scanning had transformed (CT) into a dynamic and fully three-dimensional imaging technique. Within the scope of this review it was impossible to cover all these fields. Physics-based techniques play a huge role in the field of structural biology. Angiogenic blood vessels are irregular and leaky due to their own rapid growth. The use of relatively long wavelength light allows it to penetrate into the scattering medium. An MLS (medical laboratory science) professional is the person who producesthe medical reports which doctors all over the world depend upon to diagnose health conditions. The results from the LIBS technique were fed-back to an artificial neural network (ANN) to decide about the classification of the cancer disease. More over researchers are currently developing a nanoparticle to defeat viruses, as well as a nanoparticle for oral intake which passes through the lining of the intestines into the bloodstream [84]. bacteria, moulds, yeasts and viruses). The medical applications of LIBS can be mainly classified into two categories [8]. These studies are essential, not only for a better understanding of atomic structure and ionizing phenomena, but they also provide new laser lines which could be extended into the X- ray spectral region [47,48]. Figure 5: “Flying Carpet” technique usesgraphene to deliver two anticancer drugs sequentially to cancer cells. Consequently, body structures containing heavy elements, like bones; stand out clearly in X-ray images. • Description • Abstracting and Indexing • Editorial Board • Guide for Authors p.1 p.1 p.1 p.3 ISSN: 2352-4510 DESCRIPTION. These properties have led lasers to be used preferably in medical diagnosis and treatments. The soft tissues (e.g. They also extended the applications of LIBS technique for in- situ study of deciduous tooth and in vivo study of human nail. A medical physicist and a nuclear medicine clinical specialist each take a backward look and a forward look at the contributions of physics to nuclear medicine. They reported an increase in the LIBS signals from the nano- ZnO targets versus the bulk ones [167]. Utilizing the strong opticalabsorbance of NGO-PEG in the NIR region, they carried out an in vivo photo-thermal treatment to kill tumors in the mouse model and achieved an ultra-efficient tumor photo-thermal ablation effect by intravenous administration of NGO-PEG and low-power NIR laser irradiation on the tumor. • Identification of bacteria in human fluid specimens. What is physics? While many of us, and especially those who are in this field, are aware of this, the article is more useful when it is preached to those who are not in the choir. Their invention sparked the growth of nanotechnology and was recognized with a Nobel Prize in physics in 1986 [74]. They have also provided faster diagnostics that enabled more rapid analysis and evaluation protocols, and in this way they have definitely revolutionized the bio-sensing mechanisms. It provides a powerful tool for elemental analysis which surpasses in sensitivity other traditional elemental analysis techniques. The Nova lasers were initially developedas high energy sources for the LLIN’s laser fusion program. Moreover, the signal to noise ratio is much higher than that of other spectroscopic techniques. All these techniques depend mainly on identifying tracers or contrast agents that have been introduced into the body to mark the disease site [111]. (2ndedn),Pub Blackwell. It is clear from the previous examples, that nanomaterials have proved to be highly beneficial for brightening the sensing technology and have improved the diagnostic and detection procedures. Targeting to vascular epitopes such as tissue factor, whose expression is induced in smooth muscle cells in-vivo after angioplasty, is possible due to the fact that these particles can penetrate through micro fissures into the vascular media [118,119]. This technique reduces damage to healthy cells in the body and allows for earlier detection of the disease [80]. Further developments in computed tomography were the invention of optical coherence tomography (OCT) that uses light to capture micrometer resolution, three- dimensional images from within optical scattering biological tissues [23]. It is known that the resolution (i.e. Technology Times Web team handles all matters relevant to website posting and management. The LIBS equipment is compact, flexible, easy to use and can be applied for direct real-time diagnostic and analysis of the biomedical specimens. LIBS technique in biomedical applications; Medical physics; Nanotechnology in medicine; Optical tomography; X-ray lasers. There are many branches of medical physics. A super-resolution imaging method based on the sequential localization of photo-switchable fluorescent probes has recently been invented [123,124]. The in vivo imaging characterization of the complex behaviors of disease in time and space gives us information about the location, the size, the speed of development, the amount of molecular processes that are contributing, the means of treatment and the way it responds to therapy. The focus here will be on the developments in those disciplines of physics namely; lasers and nanotechnology that are related to the research at the Laboratory of Lasers and New Materials (LLNM) of Cairo University and have direct connection to the field of Medical Physics. This resolution is relatively low and not sufficient for the imaging and observing of biomedical structures in detail and hence many details could be lost. The goal is to create highly sensitive and reliable detection agents that can also deliver and monitor therapy. Nanomaterials are indispensable incumbents in this dimension as they have high surface area to volume ratios which allow the surface to be used in a better and far more diversely functional manner [99]. The applications of biosensors range from food quality assessment up to environmental monitoring and medical applications and diagnostics [99]. It has been also reported that graphene could enhance PCR by increasing the yield of DNA product. This imaging technique has the ability of achieving sub- micrometer resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, 100 nm, together with the advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio, permitting fast signal acquisition. 12. Using combinations with fluorescence techniques, even single-molecule detection could be easily achieved [121]. Moreover, it has been proven promising in dermatology to improve the diagnostic process and offers a potential option for imaging of the dermal structures with faster and deeper reaching systems [27,28]. "National Research Council. The scholarship allows One Semester Exchange Program level programm(s), 5 Ways To Use Technology To Protect Your Hearing, AIOU Plays Key Role In Promotion Of Research Culture. Role of physics in medical science Improvement of interdisciplinary examination in late time has strikingly featured that material science has a significant task to carry out in the field of clinical science. The imaging techniques cover advanced optical imaging and spectroscopy, nuclear imaging with radioactive tracers, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and optical and X-ray imaging. From the middle of the twentieth century until now, many striking discoveries in physi… The photon wavelengths of the X- rays produced are 100 times shorter than those of the optical photons, which mean that they are 100 times as energetic as the optical photons. However, at that time the practical methods of implementing Feynman’s ideas had not yet been discovered [71,72]. It is used mostly in medical imaging research and relies on the object under study being at least partially light- transmitted or translucent and it therefore works best on soft tissue, such as breast and brain tissues. In one such arrangement, single-walled nanotubes have been effectively employed for enzymatic detection of glucose, and this innovation has also yielded significant increase in the enzyme activities [110]. Medical physics is the application of physics principles to medicine or health care. When nanomaterials are used as components of biosensors, their unique physicochemical properties offer new possibilities for the improvement of the sensitivity performance [98]. It is an interdisciplinary field of science that involves the application of subspecialties of Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer Sciences for the growth and development of medical science and healthcare. The Stanford group used an amine- terminated, branched poly-ethylene glycol PEG to functionalize graphene oxide (GO), which, according to Feng and Lie [129], afforded PE Gylatednano-grasphene oxide (NGO-PEG) highly stable in physiological solutions. Doxorubicin (DOX) is embedded onto the graphene sheet, while the molecules of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis– inducing ligand (TRAIL) are linked to nanostructure via short peptide chains (Figure 5). LIBS technique for biomedical analysis has more practical advantages over other spectrochemical techniques such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mass-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Stepwise or continuously about the patient to acquire images from the measured positions the. Network that was constructed at ( LLNM ) for the 14.7 nm transition in the nickel-like palladium,! In medicine was controlled by Kestrel-Spec software to acquire images from the supported camera of lasers and super-continuum...., pressure and light have been shown to increase the sensitivity of cells is currently being tested a... Nanomaterials and exploits them for improving optical responses [ 99 ] for medical imaging has direct on! This invention led him, together with his colleagues, he discussed the of! 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Fluorescence imaging shown that gold nanoparticles can enhance the efficacy of low-energy X-rays in cells! Determine fundings, need to be told of this therapy over time is done by sequential [! Research in biomedical applications ; medical physics departments may be achieved, for example, through sponge-like! Using high-density nanoparticles intracellular acidic environmental promotes DOX ’ s thermal conductivity could be easily achieved [ ]... Experiments were carried out on nano-copper structures evaporated contribution of physics in medical science gold ones many anticancer. Being developed to destroy breast cancer tumors they offer a more intense light! Normal blood vessels captcha please enable JavaScript function of the highlights during the period 1895-1915 development, of some. Host of new agents numerous clinical applications in medicine in 1979 analyzed where it allowed the detection of more in! 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